Below are a few helpful links within the WordPress document that might help you get started. More help can be found on the WordPress documentation site.
Name Your Site and Add Tagline - Branding
Edit your site name and add a tagline - Dashboard/Settings/General.
WP Help: http://codex.wordpress.org/First_Steps_With_WordPress
Build Up and Tear Down - Managing Content
Create a static page: add text and a picture - Dashboard/Posts/All Posts.
Create a post and add text, a picture, and a featured image - Dashboard/Pages/All Pages.
Delete everything. Go to the Media Library and delete the images - Dashboard/Media/Library.
Create a new page with content and a new post with content and save. Repeat as needed.
WP Help: http://en.support.wordpress.com/using-wordpress-to-create-a-website/
Add a Header Image - Branding
Add a banner image (if available with theme) - Dashboard/Appearance/Header.
WP Help: http://codex.wordpress.org/Inserting_Images_into_Posts_and_Pages
Add a Logo and or Favicon - Branding
Create and add a logo and/or favicon - Dashboard/Appearance/Theme Options.
Add and Configure Widgets - Navigation, Usability
Each theme has different capabilities for using widgets, which are used to show content, link to other sources, take RSS feeds from Twitter, etc. - Dashboard/Appearance/Widgets.
WP Help: http://en.support.wordpress.com/widgets/
Change the Theme - Branding, Usability
Change your theme, considering options for menus, headers, featured images, layout etc. See how your content displays with each theme and consider theme options in dashboard - Dashboard/Appearance/Themes.
WP Help: http://codex.wordpress.org/Using_Themes
Build a Menu or Two - Navigation, Usability
Menus can be created based on pages, categories, links, and more - Dashboard/Appearance/Menus.
WP Help: http://en.support.wordpress.com/menus/
Fill Out Your WP Profile - Branding
Fill out user profile. Go to gravatar.com to set up a free account and associate a photo or avatar to be displayed on your profile - Dashboard/Users/Your Profile.
WP Help: http://en.support.wordpress.com/manage-my-profile/
Add Categories to your Posts - Navigation, Usability
Categories - keywords - can be created that are associated with post content and/or links. Probably do not need too many categories, a half dozen or so - Dashboard/Posts/Categories.
Landing Page Configuration - Branding, Navigation, Usability
Your site homepage by default displays blogposts. It can be switched to display a static page (About Me, for example) - Dashboard/Settings/Reading.