While most Pietists sought to renew Protestantism by working within their local churches, a minority withdrew voluntarily or were expelled from these bodies. Those who left and formed new religious societies are called sectarians. Those who abandoned organized religion completely are called radicals. This section of the exhibition opens with writings of sectarian Pietists Jacob Denner and Nicolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf. It closes with works by radical Pietists Johann Wilhelm Petersen and Gottfried Arnold.