The process of successively synthesizing and validating larger and larger segments of a partitioned system within a controlled and instrumented framework is examined. System integration and test is the structured process of building a complete system from its individual elements and is the final step in the development of a fully functional system. The significance of structuring and controlling integration and test activities is stressed. Formal methodologies for describing and measuring test coverage, as well as sufficiency and logical closure for test completeness, are presented. Interactions with system modeling techniques and risk management techniques are discussed. The subject material is based upon principles of specific engineering disciplines and best practices, which form a comprehensive basis for organizing, analyzing, and conducting integration and test activities.